More countries are making an effort through e-government to ensure that public institutions are more inclusive, effective, accountable and transparent. Many governments across the globe are opening up their data for public information and scrutiny. Enabled by the easy access to social media, an increasing number of countries are moving towards participatory decision-making. While developed countries, especially European countries, are among the top 50 performers, many developing countries - especially lower-middle income countries - are making good progress.
Enhanced e-participation can support the realization of the SDGs by enabling more participatory decision-making. There have been increased efforts to utilize advanced electronic and mobile services for the benefit of all. Fixed and wireless broadband subscriptions have increased unevenly across regions, with Europe leading and coming closer to market maturation, while Africa is still lagging behind.
As far as other major information society benchmarks are concerned, the country is placed on the 24th place out of countries in the UN eGovernment Readiness Index and the 18th position out of countries in the WEF Global Competitiveness Index — The Belgian eGovernment strategy  is aimed at creating a single virtual public administration to be characterised by fast and convenient service delivery, at the same time respecting the privacy of users. The services shall be developed around the needs of citizens putting in place complete electronic administrative procedures independently from actual authorities being involved.
In addition, simplified procedures shall provide for a reduced bureaucracy. To this end the strategy suggests four main streams all efforts should be structured around:. Taking into account the federal structure of Belgium,  the second strategic stream addresses the implementation of eGovernment efforts throughout all levels of Federal, Regional, and Community authorities.
The framework for this co-operation was set by the eGovernment Cooperation Agreement,  adopted in , expressing in particular the commitment of all Government layers to use the same standards, identification infrastructure, and eSignature. This agreement was later re-conducted and enhanced by a cooperation agreement on the principles of a seamless eGovernment  in Key aspects addressed by latter document include:. To achieve the objectives of the second cooperation agreement, a resolution on a seamless government,  was adopted in , focusing on a close cooperation regarding identification and implementation of principles for a seamless eGovernment and on the development and usage of the corresponding services.
At regional and communal level further eGovernment strategies have been put in place within the framework of competencies of the respective administrations. At Federal level, the Minister for Enterprise and Simplification holds the responsibility for the computerisation of public services.
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The minister is responsible for FedICT , the federal agency in charge of eGovernment and the information society. This agency aims in particular at:. Besides, additional eGovernment projects are being implemented by further federal departments, ministries and agencies on a joint or individual basis. The Federal portal belgium. The content is offered in French, Dutch, German and English. In addition, dedicated portals have been set up for the different regions of Belgium offering a broad spectrum of relevant information. These are the Flemish regional portal vlaanderen.
At community level, the portals of the French-speaking Community and of the German-speaking Community mainly focus on information on communities' administrative procedures and services. With respect to the exchange of information in the public sector, the Federal Metropolitan Area Network FedMAN constitutes a high-speed network connecting the administrations of 15 federal ministries and the Government service buildings in Brussels.
In the area of eIdentification, Belgium launched a large scale distribution of electronic identity cards in Beyond their functions as traditional identification and travel documents, the Belgian eID cards can be used for identification in restricted online services. They are implemented as smart cards containing two certificates, one to be used for authentication, and another one for generating digital signatures. The eID cards can be used within almost all governmental electronic signature applications. Moreover, an electronic ID card for the unders Kids-ID was introduced in March , enabling kids to access children-only Internet chat rooms as well as a range of emergency phone numbers.
In the area of eProcurement, an eNotification platform was launched in This platform is currently used by all federal authorities for notifying invitations to tenders. Businesses can browse through the published notices to identify tender opportunities. This system communicates with the eTendering platform enabling published notices to be accessed and processed by economic operators and contracting authorities within the framework of the tendering phase. Finally, the Belgian eGovernment relies on the concept of authentic sources.
According to this approach, public entities store the data collected from citizens only once in their databases and, whenever needed, they exchange missing data among themselves. Bulgaria through the constant development of information technology infrastructures and the expansion of relevant services, has managed to show a significant progress in the eGovernment sector.
The Bulgarian government has developed an eGovernment strategy in the aim to render the Bulgarian economy more competitive and at the same time satisfy the needs of its citizens and businesses thanks to efficient and effective administrative services. The principal eGovernment activities focus on:. The Ministry of Transport, Information Technology and Communications MTITC is responsible for laying down the policies at national and regional levels that govern eGovernment strategy in Bulgaria, and also for coordination and the provision of the necessary support.
However, the implementation of eGovernment projects falls under the responsibility of the competent ministries and administrative bodies. Significant progress has been achieved in Croatia as the Government has been making a considerable effort to develop Information Society infrastructure and improve relevant eServices. The outcome of this action will thus contribute to diminishing bureaucracy, minimising illegal activities while reducing cost to government operations and facilitate government interaction with citizens and businesses.
That legal framework covers a wide variety of domains:. In , the body responsible for laying down the eGovernment policies and strategies and for the coordination and implementation of the eCroatia Programme was the Central State Administrative Office for eCroatia. In March a National Government Computerisation Master Plan was adopted for the period — aiming to examine the governmental information needs and identify potential ICT applications.
To speed up the process of implementing the plan, the Data Management Strategy DMS later adopted provided structural information to fulfil the requirements in the public sector. At a later stage the Information Systems Strategy ISS acted as a complementary plan aiming to provide good quality of services to the public.
Since January all government ministries, departments, and services have their own website. At the same year the first government web portal, was launched making accessible several governmental and non-governmental websites and many informative and interactive services. Since the main aim of the strategy has been to take steps towards productivity and growth until following closely the EU policies and directives.
Many of the basic objectives of the eEurope Action Plan were fulfilled and the government is now promoting the Lisbon strategy of the European Commission. Although there is no specific eGovernment legislation in Cyprus, section 19 of the Cyprus Constitution protects the "right to freedom of speech and expression". The data protection and privacy is being ensured by two main laws: The Law for Electronic Signatures N. The eProcurement legislation in Cyprus has been put into force at the beginning of At a latter stage, the eProcurement system was implemented based on the provisions of the specific law N.
The system aims to support the electronic publication and evaluation of tenders, and is available free of charge for all contractors in the Republic of Cyprus and all economic operators in Cyprus and abroad. Since February the Minister of Communications and Works became the minister in charge for the information society. A national information society strategy was established by the Department of Electronic Communications, whereas an advisory committee chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Communications and Works was constituted by the representatives of relevant ministries, industry, and academia.
The Directorate for the Coordination of the Computerisation of the Public Sector is in charge of the computerisation project of the civil service. The departments responsible for the implementation of the information technology are:. Citizen satisfaction stands as the ultimate indicator of success. To reach success, the relevant legal basis must be established and the supporting infrastructure must be made interoperable.
It is worth highlighting that the Data Boxes Information System was successfully activated on 1 November ,  as required by the eGovernment Act. Responsibility for steering and coordinating the eGovernment policy lies with the Czech Ministry of Interior. The latter is assisted in this task by the Deputy Minister for Information Technology. The Government Council for the Information Society provides expert and technical support.
At local level, the regions and municipalities perform their own eGovernment initiatives under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. According to the Towards Better Digital Service: Increased Efficiency and Stronger Collaboration strategy paper,  eGovernment in Denmark has taken considerable steps in developing an effective network of public electronic services. As stated at page 6 of this document:. E-government has come a long way in recent years.
Today digitalization is a natural part of the provision of government services throughout the public sector — and Denmark occupies a leading position internationally regarding e-government development. We need to retain and develop that position. Denmark's eGovernment Policy is based on the following three priority areas: The Realising the Potential — strategy paper added impetus to the development of the public sector's internal digitalisation, while the Towards eGovernment: Vision and Strategy for the Public Sector in Denmark — , marked the beginning of a joint cooperation among the municipal, regional, and State levels of administration towards digitalisation.
Three more portals were among the finalists of the eGovernment Awards: The most crucial components of e-Government in Estonia are digital identification of citizens e-ID , a digital data exchange layer X-Road and ultimately, a layer of applications developed by different public and private institutions. Since about 1. ID-cards are compulsory for all citizens and they are equally valid for digital and physical identification. Physically, they are valid for identification in Estonia, but more importantly, they are also valid for travel in most European countries.
Thus, in addition to their primary functionality — digital identification — ID-cards are effectively used as replacements for traditional identification documents. The digital ID project started already as early as in when Estonia had sought solutions on how to digitally identify their citizens.
By a viable project in the form of current ID-card was proposed and the legal framework to enable digital identification was set up in the following years. The first states the conditions to which an ID-card must adhere to, but most importantly states that the ID-card is compulsory for all Estonian citizens.
The latter, states the conditions for a state-governed certification registry, which is fundamentally linked to the functioning of the digital ID-card. Following these events, the first ID-cards where issued in January Since then about 1. By the end of digital ID card has been used about million times for personal identification and million times for digital signatures. An average annual growth rate over 12 years from to amounts to about 7.
As technology is the primary enabler of e-governance, the critical question is how to ensure secure communication between scattered government databases and institutions that use different procedures and technologies to deliver their services. X-Road serves as platform for application development by which any state institution can relatively easily extend their physical services into an electronic environment. For example, if an institution, or a private company for that matter, wishes to develop an online application it can apply for joining the X-Road and thereby automatically get an access to any of the following services: These services are automatically provided to those who join the X-Road and they provide vital components for the subsequent application design.
Therefore, X-Road offers a seamless point of interaction between those extending their services online and different state-managed data sets and services. Another important feature of X-Road is its decentralized nature. X-Road is a platform, an environment, for efficient data exchange, but at the same time it has no monopoly over individual data repositories that belong to those institutions that join the X-Road.
Moreover, by its very design X-Road requires every joining institution to share their data with others if required and necessary. As such, every joining institution, every developed application can use the data stored in other repositories and is even legally encourage to do so in order to avoid repetitive data collection from the client side.
Because the data sharing enables development of more convenient services than those institutions would be able to pull of single-handedly, this system implicitly incentives the reuse of the data.
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The incentive works because such a collective process allows for a seamless and more efficient user experience and thus increases the interest, both form state institutions to develop digital services as well as individuals to reach out to the state. When the digital identification and the data exchange layer were provided by the state, different institutions have developed their own extension of their services into the digital realm. Numerous online public services are available to Estonian citizens and residents including eID, e-signature, e-taxes, online medical prescriptions, i-voting, e-police, e-health care, e-notary, e-banking, e-census, e-school and much more.
For example, selling a car in Estonia can be done remotely with less than 15 minutes, filing an online tax declaration takes an average person no more than five minutes, and participating in elections by Internet voting takes 90 seconds on average. The basic policy documents concerning the national e-Government in Estonia are the Principles of the Estonian Information Policy , approved in May , and the Principles of the Estonian Information Policy — ,  approved in spring In the Estonian Information Society Strategy  entered into force setting thus the objectives for the ICT use in period — In a nationwide information security policy was launched aiming to create a safe Estonian information society for business and consumers.
The legal foundations for realization of e-Government in Estonia were laid down in —, with the following Acts adopted by the Estonian Parliament:. The following components can be mentioned as examples of the Estonian eGovernment infrastructure:. In the 8th EU Benchmark  report prepared in for the European Commission, Finland is considered to be a top performer country in most eGovernment and information society benchmarks. In this area Finland belongs to the so-called fast growers , i. Finland's long term strategic vision with respect to eGovernment is laid down in the National Knowledge Society Strategy —  document, adopted in September This strategy aims to turn Finland into an "internationally attractive, humane and competitive knowledge and service society" by the year To achieve this vision, the strategy focuses on four main strategic intents,  namely those of:.
Moreover, in April , the SADe programme  was set up to serve as a national action plan for putting forward eServices and eDemocracy for the period — This plan is aimed at: Within this framework, the SADe Services and Project report  was published in January as an update on programme's implementation. This report constitutes a proposal for the main plans and measures for eServices and eAdministration to be followed to foster developments in the information society in the period — Responsibility for eGovernment in Finland lies with the Ministry of Finance, which is also responsible for the public administration reform and the general Finnish ICT policy.
Within the ministry, the Public Management Department is responsible for ICT policy coordination as well as for services provision and quality. Further relevant actors include: Launched in April , the portal offers a broad spectrum of information structured around daily life events, complemented by downloadable forms. For the business community the yritysSuomi. This card enables Finnish citizens to authenticate themselves for online services and conduct electronic transactions.
This card can also be used for encrypting emails and enables the use of digital signatures. Moreover, since October , employees in the state administration are able to identify themselves in the public administration information systems by using a civil servant's identity card, containing a qualified certificate.
Using this platform is mandatory for tenders above certain thresholds. Moreover, a further eProcurement platform is maintained by Hansel Ltd, a state-owned company acting as the central purchasing unit for the government. The oldest track of an eGovernment measure in France was the nationwide release in of Minitel terminals through which citizens and companies could access several public services and information remotely.
It was in that the development of eGovernment turned into a standalone policy with the launch of both a strategic plan and an action plan commonly referred to as the ADELE programme.
The latter was aiming to simplify and make the public services accessible by electronic means to all users, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, as well as to cut the costs generated by the operation of the public administration. A pre-condition for this and a related objective listed in the programme was to generate trust in new ways of delivering services. The year marked a turning point for eGovernment with the adoption of a government ordinance regulating and granting legal value to all aspects of the electronic exchanges of data, information, and documents taking place within the public administration, as well as between the public bodies and the citizens or businesses.
Considered as the country's eGovernment Act , the ordinance also set the year of the advent of eGovernment to Since then, the further implementation of eGovernment has been a shared priority of both Digital France the plan for the development of the digital economy by and the General Review of Public Policies , a reform process which was launched in June to keep the public spending in check while refining public services in a way to centre them even more on their users' needs.
The eGovernment portal service-public. A related achievement was what the 8th EU Benchmark  refers to as one of France's biggest success stories since It is a user-customised and highly secured via eIdentification single access point to all the public services available online, some of which are entirely transactional. A personal account enables users to keep track and know the status of all their interactions with the public administration. According to the United Nations' worldwide e-Government Survey,  the website of the French prime minister is the best of its kind in western Europe due to the fact it "has a strong e-participation presence and has features for online consultation, has a separate e-government portal and has instituted a time frame to respond to citizen's queries and e-mails.
It shares this remit with the Secretary of State for the Development of the Digital Economy and the Council for the Modernisation of Public Policies who respectively hold political responsibility for the aforementioned Digital France plan and the General Review of Public Policies. The Directorate-General for State Modernisation DGME is the national eGovernment agency and the operational arm of the ministry; it is acting as a coordinator and a supervisor of the implementation of central eGovernment projects.
At sub-national level, the regions, departments , and municipalities steer their own eGovernment initiatives, but they do so within the limits of their jurisdiction and in conformity with the national eGovernment policy. Based upon the political structure in the country eGovernment efforts follow a threefold dimension, thus focusing on federal, state, and local level. Initial efforts began already in with the MEDIA Komm project for the development of local eGovernment solutions in selected regions. Later on, in , BundOnline initiative was launched with the main target to modernise the administration by making all federal public services capable of electronic delivery by the end of This strategy, which dominated the upcoming years, was driven by the vision that the federal administration should be lined up as a modern, service-orientated enterprise offering services that should follow a user centric approach by focusing on citizens and their needs.
This initiative was successfully completed on 31 December achieving a total of more than Internet services  to be made available online. The detailed results of the initiative may be found in the BundOnline Final Report,  published on 24 February Germany's current eGovernment Strategy is laid down in the eGovernment 2. Innovations for Administration  concerning the overall modernisation of the Public Administration.
In parallel to modernisation efforts focusing on the federal public administration, continuous efforts are also made to create a fully integrated eGovernment landscape in Germany throughout the federal government, federal-state governments, and municipal administrations. This objective is addressed by the Deutschland-Online  initiative, a joint strategy for integrated eGovernment adopted in This strategy places particular emphasis on following priorities: Integrated eServices for citizens and businesses; Interconnection of Internet portals; Development of common infrastructures; Common standards; and Experience and knowledge transfer.
Other eGovernment related strategy include: The legal basis for eGovernment in Germany is set by a framework of laws regulating key aspects of eGovernment and of the Information society in general such as: The initial action towards eGovernment in Greece took place in with the Kleisthenis programme, which introduced new technologies in the public sector. In the period — several projects were launched, such as, ARIADNI , which addressed the evaluation, simplification, and digitisation of the administrative procedures, POLITEIA , which re-established the real needs of the public administration, and Taxisnet which offered the citizens online tax and custom services that include the administration of VAT and VIES declarations, income tax declaration, vehicle registration, etc.
Since the introduction of the national Digital Strategy — which entered its second phase in , Greece has also shown an important progress in the field of information and communication technologies. It is the cornerstone of Digital Strategy for the transition and adjustment of the requirements of modern times and is directly related to the objectives and direction of European policy - European Information Society The Electronic Government framework aims to support effectively e-Government at Central, Regional and Local level and contribute to achieving interoperability at the level of information systems, procedures and data.
The white paper published in and updated in aimed to emphasise the need of quality of public services. For the period — a new strategic plan, the Digital Strategy — , was adapted to map the national digital course.
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The plan has not been focused on specific projects per each organisation; its purpose was the improvement of the productivity of Greek economy and the quality of citizen's life. According to the National Strategic Reference Framework for — the organisation of the public administration is aimed to be improved through the operational programme Public Administration Reform. The Greek Constitution guarantees the fundamental principles of the right to access information relevant law is No. Hungary's eGovernment policies for the period — are displayed in the E-public administration Strategy document.
Despite the lack of eGovernment specific legislation, the eGovernment landscape is created through the following legal framework adopted in the period — In parallel, they are also in charge of coordination, the implementation of those policies and strategies, and the provision of the related support. The main eGovernment portal is Magyarorszag. Thanks to the gateway Client Gate the portal has become fully transactional. Another important infrastructure component is the Electronic Government Backbone EKG which is a safe nationwide broadband network linking 18 county seats with the capital Budapest providing the central administration and regional bodies with a secure and monitored infrastructure, enhancing data and information exchange, Internet access and public administration internal network services.
The use of Information Technology to support organisational change has been high on Ireland's Government modernisation agenda since the mid '90s. Three strands  of electronic service delivery development were followed, namely: The latter stage was reached with the so-called "Public Service Broker", an information system acting as an intermediary between the public administration and its customers. This system has been supporting the single and secured access to central and local government services for citizens and businesses, via various type of channels online, by phone, or in regular offices.
The year stands as a turning point in terms of governance due to the adoption of the Transforming Public Services Programme,  which rethinks and streamlines the eGovernment policy, in an aim to enhance the efficiency and the consistency of the work of the public administration while centring it around the citizens' needs. The approach opted for is that of a rolling programme that is determined by the Department of Finance and assessed bi-annually. The development of shared services and the support to smaller public administration bodies are among the core elements of the new deal.
The Irish government seems to be effectively delivering on its policy commitments. So reveals the report Leadership in Customer Service: Creating Shared Responsibility for Better Outcomes  which is based on a citizen satisfaction survey conducted in 21 countries worldwide. As for the 8th EU Benchmark  of , it notes a "strong growth" in Ireland's eGovernment policy performance, in particular in terms of online availability and sophistication of its public services, as well as positive user experience which is estimated to be "above the EU average".
In Italy, eGovernment first became a policy priority in , with the adoption of a two-year action plan. Since then, a combination of legal and policy steps have been taken to further computerise, simplify, and modernise the public administration management and services while enhancing their quality and cost efficiency.
Increased user-friendliness and more transparent governance are major goals of the current eGovernment plan, the E-Government Plan The adoption in of the eGovernment Code , a legal act entirely dedicated to eGovernment, provided the required legal support for enabling the consistent development of eGovernment. The central public eProcurement portal MEPA ,  the eMarketplace of the public administration, is a European best practice; it indeed won the European eGovernment Award in the category "eGovernment empowering businesses". The entire process is digital, using digital signatures to ensure transparency of the process.
The Italian electronic identity card grants access to secured eGovernment services requiring electronic identification, and the possibility to perform related online transactions. This is a personal smart card for accessing G2C services and is lacking the visual security characteristics, e. The CNS card can be used both as a proof of identity and to digitally sign electronic documents.
Two comprehensive, online, single entry points to public services have been made available to citizens and businesses respectively. Both portals are clearly structured around the needs of their users and include transactional services. The portal for businesses goes further in removing the burdens resting on Italian companies and entrepreneurs; it provides a secure and personalised services suite provided by various public authorities.
Other noteworthy achievements include the taxation portal, which enables the filing of personal income and corporate returns and the online payment of taxes, and Magellano , a nationwide government knowledge management platform. The Ministry of Public Administration and Innovation and in particular its Department for the Digitisation of public administration holds political responsibility for eGovernment.
UN E-Government Survey
It benefits from the assistance of the Standing Committee on Technological Innovation which provides expert advice on how to best devise the country's eGovernment policy. The Department for the Digitisation of Public Administration is the safeguard of the consistency of the policies that are carried out at the various levels of government. A milestone in the eGovernment evolution in Latvia was the approval of the Declaration of the Intended Activities of the Cabinet of Ministers on 1 December This document defined the goals, strategy, and process for eGovernment in the country; it also defined the roles and responsibilities of the minister responsible for eGovernment.
At the same time, the Secretariat of the Special Assignments Minister for Electronic Government Affairs was established to be in charge of the implementation of eGovernment.
eGovernment in Europe
The Latvian eGovernment Development Programme — presented the national eGovernment strategy adopted by the government in September The state- and local-government owned information systems in Latvia and the information services they provide are operating according to the State Information Systems Law adopted in May and amended several times until On 1 June , the Ministry of Regional Development and Local Government took over the tasks of the Secretariat of Special Assignments Minister for Electronic Government Affairs and became responsible for information society and eGovernment policy development, implementation, and coordination.
Lithuania, through the Action Plan of the Lithuanian Government Programme for —  has made quick steps towards eGovernment. The action plan includes in its goals the modernisation of the entire public administration to satisfy the needs of today's Lithuanian society, providing efficient services to both citizens and businesses. It also considers attaining an equilibrium of the services offered in urban and rural areas especially regarding remote rural areas ; the maintenance of a strong legal framework that would support the ICT market and a secure personal electronic identification and authentication.
The enabling factors for these goals is the rapid development of public sector's eServices and the use of ICT infrastructure for the effective operation of service centres. Lithuania has demonstrated a significant progress in eGovernment through a highly developed legal framework protecting and supporting with various laws the eGovernment fields, and an eGovernment infrastructure offering on a daily basis pertinent information and a variety of services to the Lithuanian citizens and businesses. The legal framework comprises legislation on eGovernment, the freedom of information, data protection and privacy, eCommerce, eCommunications, eSignatures and eProcurement.
The Ministry of the Interior lays down the national eGovernment policies and strategies, while the Information Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior and the Information Society Development Committee under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania  share the responsibility for coordination and for the implementation of relevant eGovernment projects.
During the s, Luxembourg has highly progressed in the area of eGovernment. It has clearly developed its eGovernment infrastructure and has expanded its network of services to better satisfy the needs of the citizens and businesses of Luxembourg. A few years later, in July , a new "eGovernment Master Plan" has been elaborated to boost eGovernment development in the country. During that period, new portals have been launched, including:. This new "eGovernment Master Plan"  aims to define and set a framework for the expanded use of new technologies for Luxembourg. That framework comprises the following domains: The Ministry of the Civil Service and Administrative Reform determines the policy and strategy in eGovernment, and is also responsible for coordination.
This service has been created to fully cover the needs of public administrations' electronic exchanges in Luxembourg and also to keep pace with the developments of a constantly evolving information society. CTIE is responsible for the coordination and implementation of eGovernment services, in addition to providing the necessary support to public administration bodies. The constitution of a Single Central Government Portal is anticipated for, joining the existing "De Guichet" and the "Business" portals with the aim to provide even more pertinent and transparent services.
Malta has remarkably progressed in the eGovernment sector concentrating its efforts to further develop and optimise existing and new eGovernment infrastructure and services. Among other, several portals and services have been launched since Currently, Malta's eGovernment Programme is based upon the evolved "Smart Island Strategy — ",  and more precisely, on one of its seven streams, the "Reinventing Government" stream. The current eGovernment strategy in Malta focuses on:.
Regarding national legislation, the National ICT Strategy — provides for the establishment of an eGovernment legislation  on electronic filing, computer accessibility for disabled persons and on the legal framework governing the use of eIdentification Smart ID cards etc. It is worth highlighting that the "Customer Care system" and the "Vehicle Registration and Licensing system" are two Maltese eGovernment services awarded with the "Good Practice label" thanks to the provision of excellent and credible services.
Two more of Malta's services have been nominated for the "European eGovernment Awards": The Netherlands lay special stress on the provision of an effective ICT infrastructure and related services, easily accessible by all its citizens, to reduce red tape for citizens and businesses and facilitate their communication with the Dutch public administration. The National Implementation Programme NUP became the Netherlands' eGovernment strategy until , focusing on the infrastructure and relevant projects that use such infrastructure.
The main infrastructure components provide citizens, businesses, and public administrations with access to a considerable amount of information and services. In addition, a series of other eServices covering various fields is provided:. In the international stand, the Netherlands have earned the fifth position in the UN's e-Government Survey  and has been rated seventh in the eReadiness climax of the Economist Intelligence Unit Poland has taken significant steps towards the development of an eGovernment framework that aims to define the rights and obligations of both citizens and businesses, every time they interact with the public sector through the use of electronic means.
The following list comprises key documents regarding the eGovernment strategy of Poland: Poland bases its eGovernment legislation on the Act on the Computerisation of the Operations of the Entities Performing Public Tasks ,  which sets out the rights for citizens and businesses to contact the public authorities electronically. The Ministry of Interior and Administration is responsible for carrying out the national eGovernment policy. The Ministry of Infrastructure is in charge of the design and implementation of Poland's telecommunication policy and broadband strategy. The Committee for Computerisation and Communications of the Council of Ministers is tasked with the coordination and monitoring of the implementation of the National Computerisation Plan for the period — The Portuguese Government has achieved significant progress in the area of eGovernment as part of the Technological Plan  in an attempt to develop Information Society and render Portugal more competitive among its European counterparts and in the international stand.
Its main objectives have focused on:. The Simplex programme comprises a well-developed Administrative and Legislative Simplification Programme which is dedicated to diminishing bureaucracy, enhancing transparency in interactions with the State and efficiency in Public Administration's operations, thus gaining the trust of the Portuguese people. Even though no eGovernment legislation exists as a whole, the Resolution of Cabinet no.
The Minister for the Presidency is in charge of eGovernment in Portugal. Portugal has an advanced e-Government infrastructure containing two major portals; the Citizen's portal and the Enterprise's portal. Both are considered as main access points for interaction with the public administration. Three extent e-Government networks constitute another important part of the Portuguese e-Government infrastructure: The Citizen's Card was launched, an electronic identity card containing biometric features and electronic signatures. In addition, Portugal has issued the Portuguese Electronic Passport PEP , which includes the personal details of a holder as in the traditional passport and a set of mechanisms encompassing features varying from facial recognition to the incorporation of a chip.
The national e-Procurement portal, which is currently merely an information tool, is destined to become the central procurement mechanism for the entire Portuguese public administration. Other considerable infrastructure initiatives that have taken place are: In , the responsible body for eGovernment, the Agency for Information Society Services, ASSI published its strategy, mainly focusing on improving the efficiency of public administration services and more precisely, on providing access to interested stakeholders citizens and businesses.
It thus became the main provider of ICT services ensuring data reusability among the public administration bodies. The utmost objectives of this strategy were to enhance efficiency, transparency, accessibility and in addition to diminish red tape and illegal activities. The Romanian Government has also laid stress on setting a legal framework that would foster the information society and, by extension, eGovernment.
This framework included the Government Decision No. The Romanian eGovernment infrastructure is based upon the main eGovernment portal that provides a single point of contact to public services at national and local levels, incorporating a transactional platform. Furthermore, NES serves as a single point of access to eServices and has been developed in parallel with the portal to operate as a data interchange Centre and ensure interoperability with back-end systems across public administration.
All citizens and businesses have access to the portal and to public agencies' services through NES. Regarding eIdentification and eAuthentication, the National Person Identity System is in progress aiming at creating a computerised record of civil status for all citizens. A noteworthy infrastructure component is the eProcurement system e-licitatie. The Ministry of Communications and Information Society MCSI is the body responsible for defining the eGovernment policies and strategies and together with the Agency for the Information Society Services ASSI and other subordinate bodies co-ordinate the implementation of the eGovernment strategy which is done through private sector subcontractors.
Dan Nica, Minister for Information Society in Romania states in an interview that Romania has started the ambitious project of aligning itself to the latest trends in e-Government and introducing the most advanced electronic systems in providing public services to its citizens. He also mentioned that with this process there will be some reshaping in the administrative procedures based on individual life-events.
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