Much of its beauty lies in the detail and the repetition of images throughout the church. The mosaics of early Christian symbols: But there is also less formal detail in the Clog Windows of the south aisle and the cross in the St. Hover your cursor over the symbol see the facility name or view the key to facility symbols. Exploring What to do About us Learning. St George's Church St. Photo gallery Location map What's nearby. Open every day except Saturday from 9. St Mary Magdalene's Church. Nonetheless, there is a joke for Southerners to appreciate. Calendar in particular for the antiquity, purity and also rusticity.
OE words ascribed to 18 Blank This is our earliest general dialect dictionary extant, collected at the behest of the Royal Society with the help of his antiquarian friends such as Ralph Thoresby from Leeds.
His forty-eight pages of North Country words by far outnumber the rest, perhaps reflecting his lack of knowledge of that region until his travels see also 3. Some words are given quite specific labels of origin: Afternoon drinkings are dondinner in Yorkshire, but orndorns in Cumberland. Strangely, he does not include canny or bonny, very common adjectives today, especially in the Northeast and border regions, and frequent in popular ballads see 3.
It is important to remember that the notion of London as the site of what J. Invariable the was in place by about in the North and Midlands Wright and Wright The breakdown of grammatical gender is in evidence in the glosses to the Lindisfarne Gospels in the tenth century: Much commented on in histories of English are the 3rd person plural pronoun forms they, their, them and the 3rd person sg.
The verb spread is certainly the most frequently used verb in histories of the language in relation to various grammatical features and changes, with the North as the starting point and London English as the end point.
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Other verbs include percolate, reach, transmitt, drive out, conquer and the phrases gradually replaced by, adopted more widely, accepted from, borrowed by, began to appear in. Very few of these linguistic histories try to explain how or why. Nor is it indicated whether changes came first in writing, or in speech, or both. Thomason and Kaufman However, for an interesting explanation based on scribal copying, see Black His own proposal is that it arose analogically with is. But there is a lot to be said for J.
Why not that the North preserved it the shortest? So Baugh and Cable See also Samuels , Lass It is noteworthy that their map of ME dialects p. In general, as stated in chapter 1, the actual concept of a dialect boundary is problematic in any case: See also Kristensson However, it is not very helpful. In the Middle Ages York continued to be important: The Humber itself continued to be of significance: And since Roman times and to the present day , the Humber had been crossed by ferry from Beverley along Ermine Street a route strangely absent from map 3. In one sense this river can be seen as a significant boundary, as stated in 2.
It also tends to assume London as the origo of linguistic change. Main road and river systems c. Between and , as Jewell Because of continual engagements against the Scots see 3. In turn, royal clerks were moved to the Archbishopric of York and to the bishopric of Durham. In general, it is important not to underestimate the significance of trade for influence from the North on London English. From the fourteenth century certainly, the West Riding abbots and priors became rich on the backs of sheep see Musgrove But in this respect it is also the North-east, around Newcastle on the Tyne, which can also be highlighted: There is a curious play acted at Newcastle in the early seventeenth century and printed in London in , which gives a literary twist to this interchange.
Milroy , Nevalainen and Raumolin-Brunberg , L. Milroy ; or via the Central and East Midlands in the fourteenth century cf. Ekwall , Samuels , Wakelin , Thomason and Kaufman Particularly noted is the tendency for certain kinds of trade apprentices to move south, illustrating what Keene Both he and L. London also attracted Northern law students to its Inns of Court.
St George's Church, Jesmond, Newcastle, by T. R. Spence
Such young adults were likely to be influential on speech habits of the next generations, especially if they themselves acquired wealth and social prestige. Even Civis admits that he himself was born in the North and had come to London when he was young and poor. During the latter half of the sixteenth century the population in London had nearly tripled in a century, which can only be explained by large-scale and continuous immigration Klemola By the end of the sixteenth century 1 in 20 people lived in London Wakelin Nevalainen and Raumolin-Brunberg Even with the benefit of hindsight, it is not easy to see why some Northern grammatical features passed into London English and others not: The role of analogy has been suggested, e.
Functional motivations for innovation and spread are suggested particularly by Samuels The subjective case is certainly found in London English earlier fourteenth century than the oblique cases early fifteenth century , which may therefore have been adopted by analogy Horobin and Smith But what is not really in evidence, however, until the eighteenth century is what Haugen terms codification: Moreover, despite what some linguists might argue e.
Most importantly, as Shorrocks One could be forgiven even for thinking that little of such writing was published, let alone published widely. I return to particular genres in 3. Several survive from Yorkshire. Skeat reprints a broadside first published in York in in rhyming couplets called A Yorkshire Dialogue between an Awd Wife, a Lass and a Butcher. It reveals the hardships of farming life: The vowels are markedly Northern: Similar in tone is the slightly later and much longer Yorkshire Dialogue by George Meriton , possibly an attorney from Northallerton. Yet, one also suspects, as time and again and well into the nineteenth century and beyond, a fond appreciation for the expressive possibilities of the vernacular.
Here is the typical flavour of the dialogue. The son bursts in to say: And the daughter complains: This is a homely prose dialogue between a couple engaged to be married, Malle and Harre. Read aloud, the dialect would sound quite familiar in this part of the North even today, and the sentiments and colloquial vigour would not be out of place in the dialogue of the longest-running TV serial set in Manchester, Coronation Street see further 5.
This and other works, including his View of the Lancashire Dialect, were popularly reprinted well into the next century over editions of the dialogue, some of them pirated , not only in other cities in the North Leeds , Salford , Rochdale , but also in London , See the Lonsdale Dialogue cited below: An early literary example of possible zero-realisation is found in the ballad opera The Honest Yorkshireman by Henry Carey pr. Sapscull, a Yorkshire squire, and Blunder his servant, marvel at the wonders of London: Note the wonderful opening sequence of greetings: If it can properly be called so.
A Lancashire beau goes to London and brings home the fashionable pig-tail. On a subsequent visit to the Newcastle area the wind blows it away. So, when he learns what it really is: What is interesting about the dialogues is their concern for the emotional problems and pleasures of being a woman. These views were propounded by schoolteachers even of Northern extraction, e. Ann Fisher, married to a Newcastle printer, whose New Grammar reached thirty-five editions by Indeed, aside from London, Newcastle published more grammars during the eighteenth century than anywhere else Beal The Newcastleborn Thomas Spence, self-educated, wrote his Grand Repository of the English Language , partly influenced by Fisher, for the benefit of the poor, so that they might no longer be scorned for their improprieties of usage.
As Beal says b: However, it is difficult to estimate the extent to which educated Northerners actually modified their accents: In this period, then, the view that a broad accent could hinder professional advancement, still prominent in the late twentieth century, took firm root see also 4. The role of pronunciation in what Crowley The distinctive uvular articulation, however, is peculiar to Northumberland, and so its origins were much disputed then as now 5.
God gets his revenge by branding them with the Burr: The quotation from the Encyclopedia Britannica seems to be based on Defoe, but with a more graphic image: Early seventeenth-century commentators had also, interestingly, noted wharling in Carleton in Leicestershire. Milton interestingly uses it of language: Both Murray and Ellis call the Burr a crhoup, i. The OED does not note this spelling, but cites a phrase n.
As Beal notes See further Wales for more examples in eighteenth-century verse. I shall return to these pronunciations and their sociolinguistic implications in 4. There is certainly evidence that the lack of unrounding in respect of nonlabial vowels as in words like strut was being noted as a salient feature of Northern English by the mid eighteenth century.
In Lancashire, as Leith As discussed in 1. As we shall see in the next chapter, from the late eighteenth century onwards towns north of Birmingham began to grow dramatically, which resulted in new urban dialect speakers conscious of their own identities, and hence more resistant to metropolitan influence.
Nonetheless, as we shall see in 4. There were those few who advocated an acceptance of dialects: The language of the northern counties retains many words now out of use, but which are commonly of the genuine Teutonick race, and is uttered with a pronunciation which now seems harsh and rough, but was probably used by our ancestors. The northern speech is therefore not barbarous but obsolete. The reviewer of Grose cited above gives a clue as to the mechanism: As we have seen in 3. Travels to the North for nonbusiness reasons are certainly recorded from the sixteenth century onwards, particularly by antiquarians, despite the difficulties recorded in 2.
Several found the North an interesting challenge. John Taylor, born in Gloucester in and apprenticed to a London waterman walked from London to Edinburgh and beyond without a penny in his pocket Pennilesse Pilgrimage For Cumberland and it, both kingdoms borders, Were ever ordred, by their own disorders. From Penrith to Kendal the way was stony and boggy: If a man marke not his waye very well, and chance to be out a wea bit, the rude, rusticall, and ill-bred people, with their gamyng and rating, have not will enough to put us in. We could not understand them, neyther would they understand us.
Of particular linguistic interest is the account of the antiquarian Thomas Kirk of Cookridge near Leeds of his Journeyings through Northumberland and Durham on his way to Scotland. When any body dies, they send about the bell-man to proclaim in the streets that such a one died, at such a time. He too kept a journal printed , and it is clear that he was in perpetual fear of peril.
Even though it could take six days to travel from London to Yorkshire in the mid-eighteenth century Bowers As we have seen earlier in this chapter, the North since the Middle Ages was an important centre for wool and woollen products, and from the eighteenth century onwards took full advantage of technical revolutions.
Imagine the surprise, then, of those travellers with a distinct economic agenda, who found themselves admiring parts of the North almost against their will.
Yet Westmorland clearly scares him: Like Defoe, Arthur Young in his epistolary Six Months Tour through the North of England was primarily concerned with regional economy, industrial as well as agrarian he shows a strong interest in cabbage-growing. II letter xvii, p. The work is significant, however, by this date, for the intercalation of a new discourse, that of the picturesque. It is simply not true, as Hill states By the s certainly, as Moir The new discourse and landscape of Romanticism combined the antiquarian Gothic with its fondness for ancient ruins and the primordial mountains with an aesthetic obsession with Nature framed as Art.
The Lake District was the most popular summer excursion by the s, and many guide-books were written, including one by William Wordsworth first published anonymously in In the folk art of such tribes lay the roots of national identity Snell In parts so sequestered from the world [it] may be supposed to continue very little altered from what it has been for many ages, and to be what was once generally used through the country. Turner, who made his own tour of the North in see further Bowers , Hill Nonetheless, Relph was undoubtedly influenced at this time by the work of the Scottish poet and antiquary Allan Ramsay — Later poets in the North-west, and also Lancashire 4.
Nonetheless, there was also the strong local border tradition of ballad-making stretching back to the early Middle Ages 2. His collection of poems, Cumberland Ballads, set to well-known tunes, first appeared in Many are lively monologues or dialogues, recording the seasonal rituals and festivities of village characters like Luckless Jonathan, Feckless Wully, or Dick Watters. In his poem Canny Cumerlan there is an interesting reference to the tourist industry: Even the Carlisle and Wigton editions had an appended Glossary, suggesting that their appeal was to the middle-class local clerics and farmers, and the small-holders or statesmen as they were known locally, with a long tradition of literacy and book-ownership Joyce It is against this vibrant Cumberland and Border tradition that we can set William Wordsworth: A letter from his sister Dorothy reveals that he had read his poems while he was still a pupil at Hawkeshead Grammar School cited Leask But clearly not to imitate.
Undoubtedly he was familiar also with the work of many of the Lakeland nature poets, e. Romantic ideology of the Northern peasant, are not straightforward. Most critics like to argue that Wordsworth was still avoiding the artificial poetic tradition of the mainstream literary tradition, and that the traditional hegemony of the literary standard was broken cf.
Despite his Cambridge education, Wordsworth himself apparently retained traces of his Cumberland accent to the end of his life cf. Yet Wordsworth, like Ramsay of Ochtertyre, seems to have seen its social drawbacks. As a conclusion to this chapter there is a wonderful anecdote about Wordsworth still circulating in the early twentieth century cf. It was potry as did it. See also chapter 1. As Dellheim suggests It is hard to invoke any modern Northern townscape that is not also inextricably linked with either sea-side, dale or moorland; and even the Northumberland and Durham pit-villages, well into the twentieth century, measured their daily lives according to the rhythms of country customs and rituals as well as those of the working shifts.
This has significant linguistic consequences, which are important to remember with the growth of towns and cities in the nineteenth century. For, with the exception of a major port like Liverpool, with extensive Irish immigration and to a lesser extent Newcastle , most Northern In consequence the local regional dialect s still formed the basis of the new urban dialect: Interestingly, there is evidence of such regional standards in the first half of the twentieth century even in the new Northern cities.
The dramatic expansion of new towns and cities away from the ports and harbours was also significant linguistically in that there remained a 1 Bamford Moreover, demographic stability and socio-economic homogeneity amongst the workforce was particularly in evidence in the textile towns and the pit villages, where children followed parents into the same line of work. This again led to dialectal stability and conservatism. According to Jewell According to Williams Manchester, states Smith Liverpool prospered on the strength of cotton, and its population reached half a million by Knowles In the North-east, the population of County Durham alone in the last half of the nineteenth century grew from , to just over one million Cookson Samuel Bamford in the mid-nineteenth century, himself a weaver, noted similar great changes in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire in the years since the first Northern English after the Industrial Revolution Ship-building prospered on the North-east coast from Hull through Scarborough and Whitby to Newcastle; and even in the s the Durham and Northumbrian coalfields had been producing over one million tons of coal a year Smith Coal-mining also prospered in the eighteenth century in Cumberland and south Lancashire Jewell Steam engines were working in and from the mines long before they were powering passenger transport; and the first powered woollen mills were working in Batley in the late s.
Already by the s Defoe, whilst recognising on his Tour see 3. Even in Liverpool had impressed Celia Fiennes 3. Already by one in four Liverpudlians had been born in Ireland. The potato famine in —9 led to increased settlement, here and also in Manchester, Newcastle and Middlesbrough, because of the huge demand for their unskilled labour see further Beal At the time of the census 25 per cent of the population were Irish immigrants Knowles Outsiders tend to dislike both even today see further chapter 5: In grammar, the 2nd person pronoun plural youse, very common in present-day usage and in Newcastle is probably also due to Hiberno-English usage.
As we saw in 3. Even by the s Liverpool had expanded along the waterfront and across the Mersey into the Wirral in Cheshire, to Birkenhead Knowles , Traditionally perceived as on the border of the North-west and the North-west Midlands anyway see 2. So characteristic Northern English after the Industrial Revolution The term is not found in the EDD, but Belchem A strong sense emerges from this novel, and also from North and South, of dialect as a marker of working-class solidarity. Other novelists had certainly begun to draw attention, very importantly, to the difficult working conditions and justifiable grievances in the mill-towns of Lancashire: Frances Trollope in her lengthy and often heart-rending Life and Adventures of Michael Armstrong But in line with the prevailing and longstanding linguistic ideology outlined in 3.
The apprentice Michael and his brother appear to speak in standard English. But the pragmatic fact remained, as Mugglestone describes, that writing the dialogues of hero and heroine in standard English aided intelligibility, however unrealistic sociolinguistically speaking. The irony of her own remarks appears to be unconscious.
Gaskell continued in this mainstream tradition for the heroine Mary Barton herself, despite her obvious interest in Manchester speech. That she wished for a wider audience may be confirmed in that her husband William Gaskell provided glosses to Northern words e. But the motivation was also to show the authenticity of the representation on the one hand; and the ancient history of the dialect on the other. Manchester may have been a monster of a city growing at alarming speed to metropolitan eyes, but its speech was deep-rooted and genuine, like the emotions of its speakers.
For Trollope this is Northern enough. Northern English after the Industrial Revolution The comment is somewhat surprising, since Gaskell is careful to avoid deviant spellings, so that features of dialectal pronunciation are not generally indicated. He evidently spent very little time in Preston, on which Coketown is based, visiting it during a two-week strike in ; but he is likely, as Easson As a major character Stephen is clearly, as Ingham also suggests That used by Gaskell may explain her three missing verses and the censuring of lines attacking the parson Vicinus The song was composed after the Battle of Waterloo when the wages of the handloomers fell.
By the s the novelistic representation of Lancashire dialect against an industrial setting appears to have become so commonplace as to inspire metropolitan parody. But another footnote adds: Southern perception of the foreign-ness of the North was intensified by the landscapes of the coal-mining industry, in South Yorkshire, Durham and along the banks of the Tyne: Under the influence of Romanticism 3. What has been traditionally known in the North-east as pitmatic first noted by Heslop, , as a jocular term and used until the decline of the coal industry from the s, is in general terms a broad local Durham or Northumberland vernacular.
Surprisingly, however, there has been little mainstream research on pitmatic, although glossaries of the 7 A popular ballad from the North-east 4. There were words for different types of coal chinley, cannel, cinder, dant, jet, mushy, parrot, sooty. Some words have clearly come from farming or rural occupations: As Greenwell also reveals, each worker knew his place and his role, from trapper to backoverman, headsman to wailer, in an occupation as stratified as the coal seams themselves.
Antiquarians in the nineteenth century continuing in the long tradition of recording dialect words see chapter 3 were clearly alarmed at what they saw as the decline and even disappearance of rural speech, for a variety of reasons, including compulsory education, the encroachment of standard English, increased mobility and industrialisation see also 4. Not surprisingly, therefore, this was the age of the founding of local dialect societies such as the Yorkshire Dialect Society — ; as well as the age of a burgeoning scientific and historical interest in dialect, to which the comprehensive works of Alexander Ellis and Yorkshire-born Joseph Wright bear witness.
The 9 Beal a: Orton would rather stress the mixed nature of the mining communities in Durham, come from Wales, Cumberland, Ireland as well as Scotland. It made pragmatic sense for each area to maintain a consistent occupational dialect in the interests of safety. Indeed, it is only in the last quarter of the twentieth century that urban dialects have attracted academic attention, but thus with their histories frustratingly inadequately recorded.
With a few exceptions Addy , for instance, notes a few coalmining and cutlery terms , opportunities were lost to see the new industrial occupational dialects as just as worthy of attention as those of farming or fishing; to see how older terms were borrowed; or to see how even industrial terms could generally spread into the wider domestic and local regional sphere, or even enter the mainstream lexicon. So in the North-east a snack is bait in Yorkshire snap , words used by miners; duds are working clothes. Northern English in performance A veritable treasure-house of occupational terms from mining and weaving comprises the hundreds of ballads and songs which flourished particularly in the North-east and the North-west from the late eighteenth century well into the twentieth: The foregrounding of home and hearth meant that dialect was entirely appropriate.
The songs may often be jovially riotous in subject, but they are not unethical or socially disruptive or rebellious. But it is a striking fact that present-day linguists, like present-day literary critics, have largely ignored, or at best under-estimated, this vast and significant Northern literature, and other related genres as diverse as almanac and stage recitation see below.
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Shorrocks , is almost alone as a dialectologist in stressing the need for further study; Beal has an all too brief discussion of nineteenth-century Tyneside ballads. Histories of the English language are largely silent on the period to the present, assuming the hegemony of standard English; likewise histories of English literature have tended to concentrate on the rise of the mainstream realist novel, and so ignored the provincial voices rooted in the oral traditions of ballad, song and music-hall.
Both kinds of histories on the one hand assume mistakenly that literacy and the written standard killed off both oracy and dialect writing although the relationship between the standard, the production of dialect and the representation of dialect was complex ; and on the other hand underestimate the strength and potency of Northern English as living speech used by both working and middle classes.
Indeed, I would go further and say that it is significantly because of this vibrant body of literature, and later the music-hall to which it is related, that Northerners themselves became more conscious than ever before of their own regional identities and differences: This in turn promoted still more creativity and, increasingly, local civic pride. Although code-switching and bidialectalism increase as the century progresses, dialect is by no means an object of shame, but cherished as an emblem of local identity, and this persists until the present day see also 4.
In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries literacy levels in the North of England, particularly the North-east, make interesting reading. High literacy rates continued well into the nineteenth century in the rural North. However, in what Musgrove So on the one hand this meant that the inherited tradition of ballad-making rooted in the Middle Ages and encouraged by the cross-border influence of Robert Burns see also 3.
In the eighteenth century Newcastle was the main provincial centre for chapbook printing. On the other hand, partly under the influence of antiquarianism and Romanticism see 3. Regionally patriotic, or what Northern English after the Industrial Revolution It would be easy to get too over-anxious about the editorial practices of such collectors. The removal of tax on newspapers midcentury made it possible to publish cheap weeklies to attract more working-class readers p.
The Yorkshire Comet was printed all in dialect for a short time in Halliwell , n. The important point to remember is that they were generally meant to be recited orally, often memorised, or to be read or sung aloud, in drawing-room or public-house, so that any singer or reader was at liberty to overlay the words on the page, even those in Standard English, with their own accent, to accentuate the vernacular. The practice of oral accentuation, of course, and local variation, was translated to music-hall and variety show. Nonetheless, despite the differing degrees of dialectal representation, the songs do tend to reveal quite consistently those features which were linguistically salient to the speech community.
But Brierley has spellings like dhrunken, sthrange, childher, which Waugh does not. This spelling seems to reflect a widespread Lancashire aspirated or devoiced articulation: Indeed, William Marshall By the common collocations wor canny lads or me and my marrows are conveyed a strong sense of occupational and community solidarity. Labov attempts to make a distinction between linguistic variables subject to social-class variation indicators and those with especially high levels of awareness associated with them stereotypes. It is possible to apply this to regional variation also, but with some qualifications.
The linguistic features mentioned above certainly mark the regional and social identities of the working classes of the period, and also certain styles for those who could code-switch markers 4. That there were indeed high levels of awareness is certainly the case, but this is more a reflection of their living salience to the local speech community. However, in so far as salient features are prone to imitation by outsiders Trudgill But in relation to the ballads, as indeed local music-hall, what we could say is that dialect is consciously emblematic of regional and social identities; and of the associated community values of common sense, stoicism, homeliness, humour and self-reliance see also McCauley To my mind, this has never satisfactorily been explained, and the possible contribution of local songs and ballads to its linguistic history has been completely overlooked.
The Yankees had blockaded southern cotton ports, so that cheaper inferior materials were imported from the Surat area of India Hollingworth Literally, Geordie is a diminutive of George, and is found in Scotland as well as the North, with particular application to a guinea coin engraved with the head of George III see EDD, otherwise unhelpful. One suggestion is that it denotes a supporter of the Hanoverians from the time of the Jacobite Rising. But no dates are given for the shift in meaning from supporter to dialect.
I think it highly unlikely, however, that the term was first used by outsiders Colls and Lancaster One Geordy turns up as early as Ritson , and four in Bell By the mid-nineteenth century the name appears prominently in the titles of two extremely popular songs, still known today, by the song-writer, professional singer and printer Joe Wilson — Only a penny for trappers.
But it is very clear, however, that in its proper context Corvan, like Purvis, is referring to the pitmen audience: My contention is that, thanks to popular culture, by the mid-nineteenth century at the latest the miner and keelman had become industrial icons of the region, and the label Geordy affectionately and proudly reflected this. Interestingly, it appears to have replaced an earlier ballad emblem, notably the figure of Bob Cranky mentioned above: In fact, the nineteenth-century quotations for sense 3 are generally suspect: Further research is clearly needed on the lingustic history of both terms, for its is puzzling that their commonest senses today appear to be relatively recent.
The OED is unhelpful. In hindsight, the fact that the music-hall flourished as it did in the North from the mid-nineteenth century well into the twentieth century seems the inevitable progression from a popular culture of both the working and lower middle classes rooted in song and also music and performance: And it was thanks to the economic benefits of industrialisation that the emerging new towns and cities of the North built new theatres, each town attempting to out-do its local rivals. Such municipal buildings matched local culture with the same civic pride.
The now common phrase week-end was apparently first used by Northerners Geeson Dialect found a new medium printed on the postcard home: In any case, the study of the Northern music-hall and its performers is beyond my scope here. However, there are Northern English after the Industrial Revolution Some performers certainly creatively exploited the differences between Northerners and Southerners and their dialects. Priestley cited in Richards But it is the case, however, that just as ballads and collections were regularly reprinted in London often with glossaries or reviewed in metropolitan journals, some Northern performers carried their acts south of Birmingham on the theatre circuit.
Reception in both cases was often mixed. However, it is important to bear in mind that deviations from standard orthography meant that written Northern English was much more likely to be deemed unintelligible than spoken. They were also not afraid to adjust their acts: In one sense, as Russell Catch-phrases themselves became the equivalent of the ballad formula. With the advent of the technological media audiences became less partisan, more accepting of regional linguistic differences, at least outside news-casting see 4.
Even the later Scouse pop groups of the s like the Beatles could not match it. It was the vogue to be Northern: The still recited Lancashire dramatic monologues about the unfortunate mishaps of Albert and the Ramsbottom family were composed by Marriott Edgar from Kirkcudbright, and popularised by Londoner Stanley Holloway.
As we shall see further in chapter 5, for Northerners themselves the kinds of Northern English performance described in this section are not yet entirely part of the past, and there are indeed new permutations. Yet for non-Northerners it may well be the case in consequence that one strong contemporary national image of Northern English referred to in chapter 1 matches J. This does not simplistically equate, however, with the age-old image of Northern English as the butt of ridicule and condescension.
Northern 24 There is an interesting parallel to be drawn between the 14—16 year old female Liverpool audience for the Beatles and the 14—16 year old male Liverpool early music-hall audience, identified by Russell There is no doubt too that the persistent image of a working-class, and at best lower middle-class, Northern English has some basis in the cultural memory of mill-worker and pitmen music-hall and sea-side pier audiences, carried over into the BBC radio shows like Workers Playtime and Variety Bandbox of the s. But again, the appeal is to the demotic resonances, of the archetypal Common Man.
The next section focuses on the existential tensions that arose from the end of the nineteenth century onwards for the aspiring Northerner faced by the class-tied image of their dialect and harsh sociolinguistic perceptions. For the kids who never made it through the schools the Northern working class escaped the grind as boxers or comedians, or won the pools. George Ridley from Gateshead — Some workers found a living between the two worlds of day-shift and theatre, to gain extra income. Others taught themselves to read and left to become teachers, printers or booksellers e.
The writer Sid Chaplin b. Half the heavy lorries that roared southwards down the A1. Crossing a social boundary brings a change of status or a change of class: Again, Orwell had something to say about this: Because of the predominant concentration of working-class and industrialised conurbations north of Birmingham, and because, at the same time, of the strong pull of a Northern regional identity opposed to the national, this narrative has found a powerful expression in Northern discourses, both autobiographical and literary, and indeed has provided the inspiration for much creativity.
That the majority of these discourses have been by male writers, and the majority of these journeys themselves by men, is of course to be noted: Issues of language as a semiotic are central: Not that many working-class families did not accept the benefits of education. But as Hoggart He notes edn: The composer William Walton born in Lancashire in was apparently bullied at Oxford by his peers because of his accent Mugglestone Wyld reduced women students to tears at Oxford —45 by his fierce comments on their Northern pronunciation Bailey In sum, Waller However, these developments as a whole became particularly important for Northerners from the s onwards, when the great heavy industries of weaving, ship-building and mining started their irrecoverable decline.
The Education Act of had made school attendance up to the age of ten compulsory; the Education Act of raised the school leaving age to fifteen from , but this was delayed by the Second World War until However, public boarding schools remained outside the state system Garner The Education Act of introduced grants and scholarships for higher education. However, as Dennis et al. The term Received Pronunciation was introduced by the dialectologist A. As Honey records , with the growth of public and boarding schools at the end of the nineteenth century RP became the socially accepted accent of this kind of education throughout England: The accent of the King George V was heard by an audience of millions for the first time across the British Empire.
Following in the tradition of Thomas Sheridan 3. Inspectors of Schools were already playing their part. The result is very unpleasant to the ear. All poetry even Cockney Keats? Intriguingly, no mention is made of Harrison as a parallel. The Leeds-born playwright and essayist Alan Bennett b. A TV film is called Dinner at Noon , nicely exposing a lexical faux pas even at this date in the twentieth century: His liminal anxiety in matters of pronunciation is a good illustration of what Knowles Code-changing Liverpudlians might have problems with chairperson, for instance; or Northerners generally with gasmask.
Anyone who ventures south of the Trent is likely to contract an incurable disease of the vowels. Whenever he braked the attempted pronunciation of a word to fit the governing sound of English, it slithered around helplessly. Neither Oxford nor Wigan nor anything else. The writer Beryl Bainbridge, who in her own words ran away to London, Dick Whittington-like, at sixteen was glad to lose her Liverpool accent; and so was the novelist Catherine Cookson b.
So I gave up trying.
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As she says herself pp. Remember, as I have said, that the person who pronounces the ah thinly. But it is precisely because they have been such potent markers for Northerners themselves that they have been the sites also of much existential angst for those in social transition. It is likely that until the late nineteenth century the vowels in the South were still in fluctuation.
In his autobiography he recounts how he got his first audition to be a holiday relief announcer at BBC Manchester in , and he practised listening to London-based RP news readers like Stuart Hibberd. Headlines appeared like Lahst a Thing of the Pahst and cartoons with Here is the news and ee bah gum this is Wilfred Pickles reading it, complete with visual stereotypes of muffler and cloth cap.
California and Australia were particularly popular destinations, once rumours of riches reached home. It is not unfanciful to compare the new frontier towns with the new towns left behind: Emigration became a popular subgenre of dialect song 4. Allan in Harker ed. By the turn of the century there certainly appears to have been a market for Tyneside songs amongst homesick Geordies in America and Australia, and in South Africa also Harker A potentially appreciative, and sizeable, audience of emigrant Yorkshiremen may have prompted the West Riding dialect-writer John Hartley, author of the Halifax Clock Almanac 4.
Not all were miners or mill-workers, many were farmers. Rebecca Burlend — , for example, from Barwick-in-Elmet in the West Riding, had her story written and published by her son in ; Ann Raney Coleman, born in Whitehaven in , left England in to own eventually a plantation in Louisiana However, these published accounts are written in standard English, and so tell us nothing about the dialect that the settlers took with them on the one hand, or their linguistic experiences in, or even influences upon, their new communities on the other. In respect of the former, as Giner and Montgomery suggest Their own corpus of letters contains forty-five from two families from Lancashire and Yorkshire.
Letters become even more useful as potential evidence in earlier periods of settlement, before standardisation took such a firm hold, and when literacy levels were more unstable. And it is in earlier periods also that the tantalising question can be better raised, difficult to answer, about the possible role that Northern speech played in the actual formation of American English. This question itself, of course, is part of a larger issue, much debated, about the debt owed directly to English dialects by the emerging American English, in all its variety.
Accounts of the colonisation of New England in the seventeenth century from the s onwards are generally agreed that most of the settlers came from East Anglia, the Midlands, London and the South-east, and also the South-west. Investigations cited by Dillard At this period in any case there is no evidence of communities dominated by Northerners. It took several months to reach Australia and New Zealand in the nineteenth century. However, Northerners between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries seem to have left their mark on place-names, certainly: The story such place-names in so many different states suggests is some Northern involvement in primary settlement provinces and heavier in the secondary settlement areas, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries William Kretzschmar, p.
Read notes that in the eighteenth century the Northern origins of runaway indentured servants were indicated in newspaper advertisements through their dialect: Back home in England, no. Some linguists certainly do suggest that in the eighteenth century a Northern presence became more marked. He explicitly declares direct influence of Quaker immigrants on the North Midland dialect of American English.
In grammar, the use of double modals e. See also below, and Pietsch Yous e in the Appalachians and New York and other northeastern urban areas cf. One can imagine dialect words, like particular grammatical constructions, being more resilient than pronunciation features, but words of definite Northern origin that survive into present-day English appear to be relatively few. Many words that appear to be characteristic of Northern English in the modern period undoubtedly had a wider distribution across England in earlier centuries, and so were taken to the New World accordingly: Lancashire and Yorkshire were two of the counties of origin of initial South African settlers, but so too London and Ireland and Scotland Branford In Natal, as distinct from the Cape, Gordon and Sudbury For Australia they note not insignificant numbers of Lancashire- and Yorkshire-tried convicts, the majority from urban areas, who were transported to Australia.
As with American English, certain grammatical constructions stand out: However, he also suggests it is a feature of Scottish and Irish English. Again, there were many immigrants from Ireland in the nineteenth century, drawn there, as to America, after the Potato Famine. In lexis Bauer However, no examples of words are given.
In phonology Trudgill Nearly twenty years later in this is not mentioned; and in any case, he appears out of line with Turner The social scenario he paints of Australian English is interestingly similar to that in England, as we have seen already in 4. Whatever the size of the non-southern input, it will normally leave only unsystematic relics for example odd lexical items. The idea of the script-writer Tony Warren, born in Salford, it clearly owes part of its inspiration to pre-Second World War writers like Walter Greenwood, whose novel, Love on the Dole was set in Salford, and later made into a film The iconography of the credit sequences possibly evokes another connection to Salford: Coronation Street left a great mark on me.
Kenneth Barlow is preparing to go to Manchester University, and the stage directions read: Warren continually took note of the phrases he heard around him: He is right to claim only part responsibility, since the iconic chimneys and mills had been part of the fabric of Northern literature since the nineteenth century, as we have seen in chapter 4.
The aim was to use genuine Northern accents, albeit Liverpool Northern English present and future Just two years after Coronation Street began, media attention shifted westwards to Liverpool, with the advent of the new pop group, the Beatles. As the OED entry for Scouse records in After their first two records it became necessary for people in the business to learn a few words of Scouse. There were fifteen number 1 hits by Merseyside groups in just over a year in —4 Russell At first there was a similar problem as with Coronation Street in attracting actors with the local accent: However, although poets like Adrian Henri, Roger McGough and Brian Patten put the Liverpool cityscape at the heart of their poems, they did not write in dialect, perhaps because Liverpool lacked the tradition which other Northern regions possessed see 4.
Chuck as a term of address became inextricably associated with the singer Cilla Black, like a catchphrase of Northern comedians 4. Across the Pennines in the North-east the s saw a resurgence of popular cultural activity on Tyneside and hence Southern and media interest also, undoubtedly influenced by the Liverpool scene. Such new cultural formations, and others, also linked to the past: One of their members had been an underground surveyor.
Even aspiring politicians took note in the s. Such post-War developments in cultural productions and media confirmed a strong sense of local regional identities and differences within the North. They are likely also to have encouraged a greater acceptance nationally of regional variation in speech, while at the same time preserving Northern stereotypes to outsiders see further chapter 1.
What is a matter for serious debate, and more importantly for research itself, is the extent to which this new kind of Northern-based popular entertainment in the music industry and television had any linguistic influence outside the North. Indeed, this raises the general question, as yet unanswered, of the impact of the media on language use. On the vocabulary of young people there was influence from Scouse certainly, and television, if not pop music, continues to be significant in this respect today.
But Foulkes and Docherty This might be related to the trend towards a lower articulation of the TRAP vowel. This is a characteristic pronoun plural in both Liverpool and Newcastle English, probably because of Irish influence 4. At the very least from the s it became fashionable to be young, working class and urban, and the importance of this on language change in the late twentieth century should not be underestimated. This is discussed further below 5.
In my own post-war North-eastern accent pairs of words like taxes-taxis have never been homophones, because of a lax versus tense or close distinction respectively. Northern English present and future Further, as I discuss below in 5. And even in a national s survey reported in The Guardian 11 February 97 , in contrast to RP with the highest score Scouse had only a 6 per cent approval rating Cockney 5 per cent , possibly because of the distinctive intonation and velarised pronunciation 4.
In recent years many businesses have placed their telephone sales and enquiries in Northern cities and towns like Leeds and Darlington to take advantage of the positive images of Northern accents in terms of hospitality and openness. Indeed Foulkes and Docherty Myths and stereotypes die hard however, as discussed in chapter 1. Perhaps too many popular films of the s mentally yoked the post-industrial North with unemployment: To answer the question posed at the end of 4.
And as we shall see in the next section, the accents of many middle-class Northerners continue to appear to be drawn towards RP. These issues will also be discussed below in 5. From —39 he made a corpus of Northumberland speech from thirty-five localities from Berwick to the north bank of the Wear see further Rydland , After the Second World War he initiated a fullscale survey of dialects from informants in over stable localities in the whole of England and the Isle of Man, the only one ever completed.
The Survey of English Dialects SED , noted in chapter 1, and published in the s from the University of Leeds, aimed to make a systematic record of significant linguistic features chiefly pronunciation and lexis of older rural inhabitants mostly born after before the dialects disappeared for ever. See further the Leeds Archive of Vernacular Culture: Issues to do with Northern grammar and lexis I shall return to below in 5.
My concern here, then, is with segmental phonology: However, other traditional Northern features can still be heard: Tl for cl is noted by Easther And to w- insertion as in the Cumberland ballads 3. Yet if it has receded once again, it has not yet completely disappeared, and nor is it restricted to elderly males: I have heard it myself recently used by middle-aged golfers in Embleton, near the Northumberland coast. Lancashire also was once wholly rhotic, and Wells More recently Trudgill b: This was certainly noted in a survey of older Malton speakers in the mids French et al.
See also divvent in 5. For other features of traditional regional pronunciation commentators have been more explicit in blaming any decline or even loss on the influence of RP. Its powerful pull as a prestige accent at the level of an individual has been noted above in 4.
So over thirty years ago Viereck It is a striking fact, as some linguists tell us, that RP as it is traditionally defined is spoken only by between 2 per cent and 5 per cent of the population of England see Crystal Since its roots lie in educated and upper-class Southern and London English, as its phoneme inventory bears witness, a regional association is claimed here. Moreover, what is still a matter for much dispute is the extent to which this popular London speech style which I shall continue to call Estuary English for convenience is exerting influence on varieties North of the Trent, beyond comfortable commuting distance from London, and how.
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The question is clouded by the paucity of published or accessible sociolinguistic research until comparatively recently on Northern towns and cities, with the major exceptions of Tyneside, Sheffield, Hull and Liverpool. Both of them have tendencies which are by no means modern phenomena in themselves, but it is the overall pattern which is significant. The result is what Trudgill and Chambers A good example of this trend is illustrated by Knowles on Merseyside speech.
There is a need to update research also: Knowles , and even Newbrook are over twenty-four years old now. A major study of Newcastle and Tyneside begun in , the Tyneside Linguistic Survey, is still unfinished see Pellowe and Jones , although that has been used as the basis for the recent Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English see 5. There are also problems of comparability of data, since there is no common methodology Widdowson The results of this trend A also are often pronunciations which are neither RP phonemically or traditionally local: See also Beal This compromise tendency has been noted even in smaller communities, e.
Is it the case that speakers of standard Merseyside, Tyneside or Durham, for example, feel that they are socially and culturally closer to, or distinctive from, RP speakers? Such conservative features appear to be resilient and also remain consistently salient to the speech community as a badge of identity: Such features are also prone to stereotyping by outsiders and mimicry by comedians see also chapter 1.
Certainly evidence from the SED shows it present in words like stone and poke in the later s throughout Northumberland, especially the coast see vol. Such innovations generally are a salutary reminder that what Foulkes and Docherty Two features in particular characteristic of popular London speech are usually highlighted: Both of these have been stigmatised by educationalists and prescriptive pundits. Yet there are interesting comments and caveats to be made on Tglottalling in the North.
In Middlesbrough there appears to be a subtle continuum in usage across speakers of different ages, class and gender: Here, as in other speech-communities, style-shifting is no doubt also common. The situation in Middlesbrough is very interesting from the point of view of influence: Moreover, as Milroy, Milroy and Hartley have pointed out, in the North-east there may have been another influence historically on T-glottalling, since it is also a feature of urban Scottish English across the border, e.
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